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Wine Making Additives

As with any chemical you may use please read the instruction for usage of the additive being used. If you keep in mind one statement from this site while you are making your wine then I feel I have done the best I can for you. This statement is as follows. Remember you can always add more ingredients to your wine but you cannot remove them once you have added them so please be sure of your additions and if you are in doubt to the amount required add less than you think is needed. This goes for just about everything, less sugar as you can always add, less water as again you can always top up and so on. The only thing I would say this does not apply to would be yeast or yeast nutrients as for this if you added a bit more than required it would not hurt a thing other than clearing of the wine as it might just take a bit longer to clear, no big deal there.

I would highly suggest that you keep very good and clear notes through out the process so you can go back to them if you are un sure of what and/or when you added a chemical or content of some type. Besides knowing what and when a addition was made if the worst happens you can go back through your notes to try and figure where the process or you failed. This way you do not do it again. Nothing worse in wine making than losing a whole batch of wine due to a error in judgment.

Chemical / Ingredient Usage Recommended concentration Comments
Acid blend (tartaric, malic, citric) 3:2:1 Increase total acidity 1g/L Increase TA by 1 g/L
Ascorbic acid Anti-oxidant 2-3 g/hL Only to be used with sulphite
Bentonite Fining white and red wines Fining sparkling wines 25-100 g/hL 25-50 g/hL Dissolve in water
Bio-Clean Clean equipment 15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of warm water
Bio-San Sanitize equipment 15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of hot water
Casein Fining white wines and improve color in white wines 50-100 g/hL Dissolve in water
Chlorinated cleaner (pink powder) Clean and sanitize equipment 5 mL (1 tsp) per 4 L of water Should not be used on plastic equipment or oak barrels
Citric acid Increase effectiveness of sulphite solution for sanitizing equipment 45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of water Dissolve in warm water
Copper sulphate Reduce hydrogen sulphide 4 drops/hL using a 1% solution
Dextrose or sucrose Increase potential alcohol level 17 g/L Increase potential alcohol level by 1.0%
Egg whites Fining red wines 5-10 g/hL Combine with a salted water solution
Gelatin Fining red wines 1-5 g/hL (increase up to 25 g/hL for high-pectin wines) Dissolve in water
Grape tannins Increase tannin content 10-30 g/hL (increase to 50 g/hL when fining high-pectin wines with gelatin) Dissolve in warm water
Hydrogen peroxide Reduce free SO2 content 50 g/hL (using a 1% solution) Reduce free SO2 content by 10 mg/L
Isinglass Fining white wines Liquid: 1 mL/L Powder: 1-3 g/hL Liquid: dilute in wine Powder: dissolve in water
Kieselsol Fining white and red wines 25-50 mL/hL
Meta tartaric acid Prevent precipitation of tartrate crystals Up to 10g/hL Dissolve in water
Oak chips Add oak aroma to wines Whites: 1-2 g/L Reds: 2-4 g/L
Oak extract (10% solution) Add oak aroma to wines Whites: 2 mL/LReds: 4 mL/L
Pectic enzymes Fining wines Whites: 1-2 g/hL Reds: 2-4 g/hL Dissolve in water
Phosphoric acid Reduce pH in high-TA wines 1 or 2 drops of 30% solution/L
Potassium bicarbonate Reduce total acidity 1-2 g/L Reduce TA by 1 g/L
Potassium Metabisulphite A. Crushing of grapes
B. Must preparation (concentrated, sterilized, and fresh juices)
C. Stabilization D. Bottling
A. 100 mg/L
B. 50 mg/L
C. 50 mg/L D. 50 mg/L
A. Decrease to 5-10 mg/L of must for MLF.
Dissolve in warm water B, C, and D. Dissolve in warm water
Potassium Sorbate Prevent re-fermentation of bottled wines 10-20 g/hL Do not use in ML-fermented wines
Sodium carbonate (soda ash) Clean plastic equipment 8-12 g/L of water Dissolve in hot water
Sodium per carbonate Treat oak barrel spoilage problems 1-3 g/L of water Dissolve in hot water
Sodium Metabisulphite Sanitize equipment 45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of water Dissolve in warm water
SparkolloidŽ Fining white and red wines 10-40 g/hL Dissolve in water
Sweetener-conditioner Sweeten a finished wine 12-25 mL/L of wine Prevent renewed fermentation
Tannisol Preserve/stabilize wine 1-3 tablets per hL
Tartaric acid Increase total acidity or reduce pH 1-2 g/L Increase TA by 1 g/L or reduce pH by 0.1 unit
Yeast (active dried) Alcoholic fermentation 5 g for 4.5 to 23 L of must
Yeast nutrients (diammonium phosphate) Enhance fermentation capability of yeast 10-20 g/hL Dissolve in warm water

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